Saturday, September 21, 2019

History †MapQuest Chapters Essay Example for Free

History – MapQuest Chapters Essay WebQuest Chapter 19: The Pullman Strike 1. ) George Pullman explained that the benefits of having his workers living in his company town was that he believed that the surroundings would remove the workers from the â€Å"Feeling of discontent† which â€Å"Characterized the American Workman†. This would protect his company from the economic loss that the discontented worker would suffer if he was living under bad conditions. He also took the rent that was due directly out of the paychecks of his employees. 2. ) The readings do not state a dollar amount for the hourly wage. The Parable of Pullman states that the workers wages were close to subsistence level. The amount of the pay cut averaged 25% 3. ) Eugene Deb was a Locomotive Fireman. It was under him that the American Railway Union was organized in June of 1893. He was the president of the ARU. It was a single organization that represented all types of railroad employees. In August of 1893 they had had success over the Great Northern Railway in a wage cut dispute. The Pullman workers also joined the ARU. When they went on strike in May of 1894, the ARU supported the strike and it became a nationwide strike between railroads and the American Railway Union. After the strike was broken by federal intervention, Debs was jailed for six months for his role in the strike,, specifically for violating a federal injunction and interfering with the mail. 4. ) The strike ended because the ARU members had refused to work any train that had Pullman’s cars included in it. The companies purposefully attached Pullman cars to mail trains. This caused the mail to be delayed. The result was the Federal Government issuing an injunction and President Cleveland sending Federal troops to enforce it, in order to stop the mail delay. A â€Å"yellow dog† contract is a contract that a worker signs promising not to join a labor union while he is an employee of the company who holds the contract. 5. ) The appellants had been refused employment, had no viable way to leave the Town of Pullman, and their families were starving. Instead of employing these individuals, Pullman had brought in substitute workers. Governor Altgeld wrote Pullman a letter basically stating that he should bear some responsibility for the plight of those in his town. He also stated that he was going to conduct a personal investigation. He made good on his word for the investigation. 6. ) The investigations found that the letter of complaint was indeed valid. There were 1600 families that were without the basic necessities of life, such as food. The investigators also found that there were 600 new workers but 1600 old workers that were still unemployed. HISTORY PAGE 2 of 3 7. ) Pullman blamed the workers for their plight, stating that if they had not gone on strike, they would not be suffering. WebQuest Chapter 20: The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire 1. ) The workforce was mainly made up of young immigrant women. There were also men employed, and boys as elevator attendants. There were other boys and girls present during the fire. 2. ) There were a total of 146 people who died in the fire. Most of these were young women. The readings do not break out the deaths by gender. There were also men and boys who died in the fire. About a third jumped from the ledges to avoid burning to death. The rest died of burns, some at their sewing machines. 3. ) The exit doors on the ninth floor were locked, ostensibly to prevent employee theft. The one fire exit that was available was inadequate for the number of workers. The conditions existed because fire inspections and precautions were inadequate. The workers feared that if they spoke out about the conditions, that they would lose their job. Economics also played a role in why the conditions were not corrected. 4. ) The citizens of New York, from every physical and economic part of the City, demanded justice. Workers offered testimony and support. There were protests in the streets. They demanded a safer work environment. 5. ) The unions became strong after this tragedy. Many workers saw the benefit in having an organization speak on their behalf. The other legacy is the building codes and worker safety legislation that was passed after the fire. WebQuest Chapter 22: The Platt Amendment 1. ) The Platt Amendment was attached to the Cuban Constitution. The Cuban Government, with reluctance, included the amendment in their constitution. The United States was already occupying Cuba. The United States was not going to relinquish any control without the amendment in place. 2. ) The Platt Amendment was drafted by Secretary of War Elihu Root, and presented by Senator Orville Platt. It was attached as a rider to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901. The intent was to protect Cuba from foreign intervention and allow the United States to exercise authority in Cuba if the situation warranted it. It was passed by the Senate HISTORY PAGE 3 of 3 3. ) The Platt Amendment barred Cuba from going into debt, making treaties with other nations that gave those nations any power over Cuban affairs, or stopping the US from creating a sanitation system. It restricted Cuban Sovereignty by giving the United States broad latitude of power over the domestic and foreign relations of Cuba. 4. ) The Platt Amendment was used by the United States as an excuse for intervention in Cuba in 1906, 1912, 1917, and 1920. The Platt Amendment was also used for the creation of the base at Guantanamo Bay. 5. ) The Cubans were reluctant to attach it to their Constitution. They feared rampant US intervention. Widespread criticism of the amendment and rising nationalism in Cuba resulted in President Franklin Roosevelt’s repeal of the Amendment in 1934, except for the lease of Guantanamo Bay. 6. ) Whereas the Platt Amendment specifically provided causes for the intervention in Cuba by the United States, the Teller Amendment stated that the United States disclaims sovereign claims to Cuba, and will leave control of the island to the Cubans, and will not claim jurisdiction. The two documents are in sharp contrast to one another.

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