Tuesday, February 18, 2020

An Investigation of Career Barriers for Female Television News Anchor Dissertation - 1

An Investigation of Career Barriers for Female Television News Anchor in Nigeria - Dissertation Example These tribes during pre-colonial times have had their women enjoying equal social status with the men, especially with their respected traditional government systems (Ajayi, 2007, p. 137-138). For example, there are Women’s Leaders, Goddess Priests and Market Women’s Leader (among others) in the Yoruba tribes in South Nigeria. There are also Queens in Northern Nigeria that contribute to the local political influences and development (Ajayi, 2007, p. 138). These all changed when the British colonized Nigeria since the British Colonial Administration actively pushed discriminatory sex roles in the nation’s politics (Ajayi, 2007). This reduced women’s power and relevance in their society. The women were denied opportunities in career, business and politics. They were marginalized. Nigeria is a male-dominated society. In Islamic religion, especially in the Sharia law, women and men have very different roles, rights and obligations. This is largely due to their religion, which is Islam. This is where the major sexual and gender differences start in their society. This law therefore dictates the woman’s fate in terms of education, employment, finances and even in legislation. Television, having introduced women on the screen, in roles often contradictory to the stereotypical domestic role of the women in society, has also given rise to some fundamental, social, cultural, professional and ethical issues, which have come to affect the career paths of women in the industry. Gender stereotyping is not limited to the field of television. This is an issue which transcends all strata of organizational, social and family life in Nigeria (Agnes & Ijeoma, 2010). Before the advent of television in Nigeria, parents believed in sending their sons to acquire formal education in Law, Medicine or Engineering while encouraging their daughters to learn the family trade and then get married. Society believed that a woman’s place resides squarel y in the home and in rare cases when they were allowed to go to university, such conventional courses as mentioned above were the accepted courses to study. This was due to the image of prestige, dignity, integrity and decorum associated with such traditional career paths (Charles, 1989). There is a study in the United States by Engstrom and Ferri, about the Local U.S. Television News Anchors’ Perceived Career Barriers. The study found out that most career barriers are often sexist in nature. There is no tangible evidence for sexism though, as both men and women have reported having less time at home. The study covers both sexes but it also shows how the sex determines one’s career. In the case of women, their decision to further their career is often hampered with their other concerns, particularly with that of the family and even physical appearance and ageism. This can come as career barriers. Culture appears to be the most powerful barrier in the pursuit of a profe ssion in TV sector among Nigerian women. The Nigerian culture encourages submissiveness in women and the Nigerian women have faced a lot of gender stereotyping in their society, which are even present till date (Poindexter & Meraz, 2008). However, there are probably other factors that contribute to the stagnation of the careers of women that are not

Monday, February 3, 2020

The importance of expert systems in the decision making process Essay

The importance of expert systems in the decision making process - Essay Example Expert systems can be used by mangers to make official decision process and to clarify the reasoning process employed to make decisions. Expert systems have provided so many facilities in the management decision-making process and the process turned out to be faster and more consistent. This research paper based on theme of the analysis of the importance of 'Expert system' in the management decision making process.This paper provides the research on the importance of 'Expert System' in the Management Decision Making Process. It provides information in such a way that every aspect of the expert system of the Decision Making can be addressed. First of all this paper will present a brief introduction and background of the expert systems, and then it will present the structure of the expert system, the next section contains how expert system can work for the management of enterprise. The next section is literature review of the relevant research and development in the same field, for thi s purpose it will discuss the development and results of the COMMU expert system, then the proceeding section discusses expert system in business management/ financial markets discussion, here the main point of discussion would be that how expert system become beneficial for the business management and how it can support decision making process. The next section is regarding expert systems & decision support association. The proceeding section will articulate few inabilities of expert system regarding decision making. Then the next section contains the conclusion and references. Artificial intelligence or AI is a field of computer science which has concerned a group of computer specialists in current years. AI is the study of how to create computers doing things at which, at the moment, people are better. AI has two major objectives (Kenneth, 1998). The first purpose is to form an intelligent machine. The second intend is to find out regarding the environment of intelligence. AI can be separated into three comparatively independent research areas: 1) Expert systems, 2) Natural language and 3) Robotics Of the three areas, expert systems development is the mainly important practical application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) (Kenneth, 1998). One of the most recent and mainly promising information technologies is the expert system or ES. An expert system is a computer program that impersonators the decision making behavior and technique of the human expert and permits computing power to be applied to jobs those necessitate the dealing out of human knowledge (Adrian et al, 1990). Because of its intelligent abilities it has been suggested that expert system technology will have a remarkable effect on the workplace. An expert system is a computer program that goes behind human proficiency whether it is gained directly from experts or from written sources like regulations. The main reimbursements are several as given below: (Terry et al, 2000) Enhanced decision making Making eminence and reliability Minimizing Costs Extension of organizational awareness These programs are fairly diverse in their function, which comprise guidance to fresh employees, user friendly front-ends to databases, and still the making of decisions for employees by means of the expert's reasoning. Research in artificial intelligence has led to the intensification and expansion of expert systems (Terry et al, 2000). Expert system is also an elevated performance exceptional system which is developed by "confining" and coding the skill and knowledge of a specialist using unique computer language that is special for the expert system. The thought is that the consequential computer system be able to then hold out the similar level of service to a user as the original and innovative expert (Joseph et al, 2005). Developing expert systems engages two basic steps before authentic