Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Succubus Shadows Chapter 24

â€Å"This†¦isn't possible,† I said. â€Å"I don't know,† said Roman dryly. â€Å"Looks pretty possible to me.† â€Å"But Seth's an author. These kinds of magazines don't care about people like him.† â€Å"He's so commonplace for you that you don't realize how famous he is. And, hey, if it's a slow week, they probably take what they can get. Sex sells – and that's pretty sexy.† I looked down at it again. It was pretty sexy. They'd taken it when I'd been lying on top of Seth, and the sarong had slipped enough that I was showing an awful lot of skin. Nausea rolled through me. â€Å"Maybe no one will see this.† Yet, even as the words left my lips, I knew that was wishful thinking on my part. As I'd noted before, this magazine was a favorite at the store, largely because of its outrageously ridiculous articles. Someone, somewhere was going to see this picture. And while the articles might be fabrications, a photo like this – which clearly showed our faces – could hardly lie. I let the magazine fall to the floor. â€Å"I can't†¦I can't deal with this. Not after everything else.† Roman frowned, legitimate concern filling his features. I don't think he was happy about either the picture or Seth's new resolve, but it had to be obvious that more than these bits of news were plaguing me. â€Å"Georgina, what else is – â€Å" I held a hand up. â€Å"Not now. Tomorrow. We'll talk tomorrow. Too much†¦too much has happened tonight.† Erik's lifeless eyes flashed in my mind. â€Å"It makes this seem like nothing.† He hesitated, then nodded. â€Å"Okay. You want to set aside some time for tomorrow night? I don't mean a date. Just, I don't know. Get dinner, talk about all this so it doesn't eat you up. I really am worried about you.† I started to say he shouldn't worry, that I'd be okay, but I backed off. I really didn't know if I was. â€Å"I'd like that,† I said honestly. â€Å"If my damage control doesn't conflict, then sure. I'll tell you all about it.† I stood up wearily. â€Å"But now – bed.† He let me retreat to my bedroom, his heart in his eyes. It made me feel worse, largely because of what a low priority his feelings were for me right now. Obviously, they were important to him, and I appreciated his ardor. And his feelings did mean something to me. There was something very sweet and comforting in his offer to breathe and just talk. But in light of everything else going on? I couldn't allow myself to process anything too deep with our relationship right now. Particularly when I had to face the gauntlet at the bookstore the next day. I'd had a number of past times entering Emerald City where I'd been met with curious and covert looks. More often than not, it had been over something ridiculous, and I'd had no clue until later. Today, I knew exactly what was going on. There was no question that the damned magazine had gotten around. And the looks this time weren't inquisitive or smug. They were accusatory. Disdainful. I couldn't face them. Not yet. I hurried through the store as quickly as I could, seeking my office – which I vowed not to leave for the rest of my shift. It was pretty hypocritical, considering my judgment on Seth avoiding his problems. Only, I didn't have as much luck getting away from mine. Maddie was sitting at my desk. I hadn't seen her in a week, not since she'd come to my condo. I'd told her then she could have indefinite leave from work and hadn't expected to see her back anytime soon. Now she stopped me dead in my tracks. Her face was much calmer than I would have expected. No, it was more than calm. It was still. Perfectly, eerily still. Like a sculpture. And when she looked up at me, it was like looking into the eyes of the dead. Cold. Emotionless. Nonetheless, I shut the door, fearing what was to come. â€Å"I had a million theories, you know.† Her voice was as flat as her expression. â€Å"Never, ever did I consider this one. I mean, I wondered if there could have been another woman. But I never thought it'd be you.† It took an impossibly long time for my lips to move. â€Å"No†¦it wasn't that. It wasn't like that at all. That's not why he did it†¦.† I couldn't finish and suddenly questioned my words. Wasn't that – by which I meant, me – exactly the reason he'd left her? Maybe our beach interlude hadn't been the direct cause, but I had certainly been the catalyst. The magazine lay on my desk, open to the guilty page. She picked it up, studying it with a calculating look. â€Å"So what then? You were just comforting him after the fact?† â€Å"Actually†¦well, actually, yeah. That shot was taken afterward.† It still sounded lame, and we both knew it. She threw the magazine down, and finally, the emotion came to her face. â€Å"What, and that makes it okay?† she cried. â€Å"You – one of my best friends – running off with my fianc? ¦ the day after he dumps me?† â€Å"It wasn't like that,† I repeated. â€Å"I went to find him†¦to see if he was okay.† â€Å"And then you made sure he was okay?† she demanded. Her words were sarcastic, but tears glittered in her eyes. â€Å"No†¦I didn't expect anything like that to happen. And really, nothing much did happen. The thing is†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I took a deep breath. â€Å"We used to date. Before you guys were together. We never told anyone. Things ended†¦well, pretty much just before you started going out.† Like, almost the day before. That caught her off guard. Her eyes went wide. â€Å"What? You had a past†¦you went out with my boyfriend and never told me? He never told me?† â€Å"We thought it'd be easier.† â€Å"Easier? Easier?† She pointed at the magazine again. â€Å"You think seeing you guys back together in full color was easier?† â€Å"We aren't back together,† I said quickly. â€Å"He didn't end things because he was cheating – † Again, I had to admit the truth to myself. He hadn't been cheating on her when he broke the engagement, but we'd slept together earlier in the relationship. â€Å"I was as surprised as you were. And I was worried. I told you, I went to find him, but we didn't sleep together. Then I left. That's it.† The tears were on her cheeks now. â€Å"It wouldn't have mattered if you had slept together. You guys keeping that past from me – you guys lying is worse. I trusted you! I trusted both of you! How could you do this? What kind of person does this to their friend?† A damned soul, I thought. But I didn't say that. I didn't say anything. Maddie shot up from the desk, futilely trying to wipe away the tears that were still coming. â€Å"Doug warned me once, you know. He said there was this way you guys always looked at each other that made him wonder. I told him he was crazy. I told him he was imagining it – that it was impossible. That you guys would never do that to me.† â€Å"Maddie, I'm sorry – â€Å" She hurried to the door, pushing past me. â€Å"Not as sorry as I am for putting my trust in you. For putting my trust in both of you. I'm quitting. Right now. Don't expect to see me again.† She jerked the door open. â€Å"I don't know how you can live with yourself. You two deserve each other!† The door slammed loudly, rattling my ears. I stayed where I was, staring blankly at the desk, unable to move. Unable to think or react or do anything useful. I don't know how you can live with yourself. Me either. â€Å"Boy, things are pretty screwed up for you.† Carter materialized beside me, his angelic signature filling the room. Dressed as ratty as always – except for his hat – he strolled casually to the desk and picked up the magazine. â€Å"That's a good shot of you, though.† â€Å"Shut up,† I said. The agony I'd tried to keep locked up with Maddie began to burst out. â€Å"Just shut up! I can't handle your commentary right now, okay? Not with everything else. Certainly not with this†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I sank to the floor, leaning against the door and raking my hands through my hair. When I looked up at Carter, I expected one of his laconic smiles, but his face was all seriousness. â€Å"I wasn't being sarcastic,† he said. â€Å"Things are screwed up.† I suddenly wished I had a cigarette. â€Å"Yes. They certainly are. Erik's dead, you know.† â€Å"I know.† I closed my eyes for a moment, allowing myself to feel the full grief over that. With so much going on, it didn't seem like I'd really allowed any of these problems to have the full mourning they deserved. Someone, I realized, would have to do the proper things for Erik now. Did he have family somewhere? Dante of all people might know. Otherwise, I was willing to take on any funeral arrangements – no matter the cost or work. I owed Erik that much. I owed him so much more. â€Å"It wasn't a coincidence,† I said softly. â€Å"It couldn't have been. Jerome says it was some revenge from the Oneroi's master†¦but I don't believe that. Erik had been trying to figure out my contract. Before he died†¦before he†¦Ã¢â‚¬  My voice caught as I recalled how I had been the one to take that last breath. â€Å"He told me there were two contracts. That it wasn't mine that was the problem. I don't know what that means.† Carter still said nothing, but his eyes were fixed so intently on me that they might as well have been pinning me to the wall. â€Å"But you know, don't you?† I asked him. â€Å"You've always known. And Simone†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I frowned. â€Å"Before Jerome sent her away, he mentioned something about her knowing Niphon and ‘fucking up things even more.' That's a piece of all this too, isn't it?† Carter still remained silent. I gave a harsh laugh. â€Å"But, of course, you can't say anything. You can't do anything. Hell's always got its hands in mortal affairs – or even lesser immortal affairs – but you guys? Nothing. How can you be a force for good in this world? You don't help bring it about! You just wait and hope it happens on its own.† â€Å"Most of the good in this world happens without any of our help,† he said evasively. â€Å"Oh good God. What a lovely answer from you. And you know what? I don't believe there is any good in this world. All this time†¦ever since I sold my soul, I've been clinging to this idea that there is something pure and decent out there. That there was something to give me hope that even if I was a lost cause, at least there was something bright and good in the world. But there isn't. If there was, Seth wouldn't have fallen. Erik wouldn't have died. Andrea Mortensen wouldn't be dying.† â€Å"Good can still exist when bad things happen, just as evil persists when good things happen.† â€Å"What good comes from Andrea dying? What good comes from leaving five little girls alone and motherless in the world?† I was choking on my own sobs. â€Å"If you – if any of you – could really affect the world, you wouldn't let that happen.† â€Å"I can't change fate. I'm not God.† He was still so fucking calm that I wanted to punch him. Yet, what could I expect? Jerome had no attachment to humans, and at the end of the day, angels and demons weren't so different. I buried my face in my hands. â€Å"You can't change anything. None of us can change anything. We're resigned to our fates, just like Nyx showed.† â€Å"Humans change their fates all the time. Even lesser immortals do. It starts small, but it happens.† I was suddenly tired. So, so tired. I shouldn't have come here today. I should never have left my bed. I no longer had the energy to argue with him or berate his frustratingly useless attitude. â€Å"Can Seth change?† I asked at last. â€Å"Are good intentions enough to redeem a soul?† â€Å"All things are possible. And I don't mean that as a clich? ¦,† he added, no doubt seeing the scowl on my face. â€Å"It's true. Mortals and mortals-turned-immortals don't always believe that – which is why Hell has such a foothold in the world. And I'm not saying that if you believe it, it will happen. Things don't always turn out for the best, but miracles are real, Georgina. You've just got to lift yourself out of the muck to make them. You've got to take the chance.† Yes, I was definitely getting a cigarette after this. Carter probably had one on him. I gave him as much of a smile as I could muster. â€Å"Easy for you to say. Can you make miracles?† â€Å"I try,† he said. â€Å"I try. Will you?† And with that, he vanished before I could bum a cigarette. Fucking angels. But his words stayed with me when I went home that night, maybe because even as depressing as they seemed, they were still more cheerful than enduring that shift. My managerial mandates were still obeyed, but otherwise, I could see the seething disapproval and condemnation in the eyes of my colleagues. It was a startling reminder of my village's reaction when everyone had found out I'd cheated on Kyriakos. Only this time, I had no way to blot it from these people's minds. I had nothing more to bargain with Hell. At the condo, I found a note from Roman, saying he'd be staying at the school for a while that evening to finish up some setup. If I wanted, though, he'd be happy to take me out for dinner as he'd promised. That gave me time to stretch out on the couch, seeing as I was still exhausted from the emotional miasma I'd been wading through this last week. No sleep came, just a kind of bleak malaise as I stared at the ceiling. Probably just as well. God only knew what I'd dream. Dream. I sighed. The man in the dream. It had been bugging me over and over in my subconscious, and without even mentioning it, Carter had somehow brought it back to the fore-front of my mind. The Oneroi had claimed Seth was the man in the dream. I told myself for the hundredth time that it was a ridiculous fantasy. I couldn't have any real relationship with a mortal. Seth had fallen from grace, and I'd refused him. It was all impossible now. All things are possible. Erik and Mei had said it was impossible for Seth to find my soul across the vastness of the dream world – yet he had. Kristin had told me my contract was airtight – yet Erik had sworn there was a flaw somewhere. He'd died for that knowledge, I was certain. Seth had claimed nothing could bring him back to Seattle – yet I had. Everyone who worked for Hell had told me darkened souls almost never redeemed themselves – yet Seth was striving to regain my good opinion. He was also sacrificing what he loved – his writing – to help the family he loved more. Would that be enough? Could he be saved? All things are possible. I sat up from the couch, my gaze falling on the spot where Aubrey and Godiva slept next to each other. Godiva had come to me after I'd dreamed her. The dream I still maintained was impossible. Miracles are real, Georgina. You've just got to lift yourself out of the muck to make them. You've got to take the chance. Could I? Would I? Was there a miracle somewhere in the muck of this despair, heartache, death, and betrayal? I couldn't see through it. I didn't know where to start. Carter had said change happened through small acts. All I had to do was pick something. Anything. Take the chance. Again, I focused on Godiva. The man in the dream. Maybe it was Seth. Maybe it wasn't. Maybe I could make it him. His love had been great enough to rescue me and then try to rescue himself. I realized now what had been bothering me. He was doing all of this – how could I do any less? All my life, I'd hidden from hard choices. I'd always found some compromise to avoid bad things, the results of which never really turned out that great. If anything, they'd become worse. My love for Seth was no less than his for me, but I hadn't been willing to do the things that might hurt. He'd told me there was no way the universe would let us stay apart. He was right – and this time, I would be the one who made sure we came together again. I wouldn't abandon him. I was moving toward the door, my coat and purse in hand, when Roman came home, carrying flowers. He took one look at me and offered a small bitter laugh that carried all the woe and resignation in the world. The bouquet sagged in his hands. â€Å"You're going to Seth.† â€Å"How did you know?† â€Å"Because†¦because you're shining. Because you look like you've found all the answers in the universe.† â€Å"I don't know about that,† I said. â€Å"But I've found some kind of answer. He's risked so much for me†¦. We found each other across all the other souls in the world†¦.† I trailed off, feeling horrible. My decision about Seth burned brightly in me, but Roman's face†¦there seemed to be nothing in this world that didn't end up causing someone pain. â€Å"I was wrong to abandon him. Especially now.† â€Å"Sounds like you better go to him,† said Roman at last. â€Å"Roman – â€Å" He shook his head. â€Å"Go.† I went. I hadn't been to Seth's condo in so long, not in the flesh. Walking up to the door, a barrage of memories flooded me, particularly that first night I'd stayed over when he had taken care of me†¦. It wasn't that late, but when he opened the door, there was a scattered, mussed look to him that made me think he'd been sleeping. Or maybe he'd just been too consumed by writing to properly groom. It happened sometimes when he got caught up with the worlds in his mind. From the look on his face, it was clear he was in this world now. I don't think he'd believed he'd see me for a very long time. I wondered if I was still shining the way Roman had claimed I was because Seth's eyes regarded me with more than just surprise. There was wonder and awe there. I'd only driven across town, made one impulse decision to come here, but we might as well have been meeting across time and space again. â€Å"Georgina,† he breathed. â€Å"What are you – â€Å" I didn't let him finish. I threw myself into his arms and kissed him. And this time, I didn't pull back.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Solution Aging Population

There are many proposed solutions in discussion to help care for the aging population. We should begin by reforming our incident-based system of care. Health care today is reactive: if we get sick, we make an appointment to see a physician; if we become seriously ill or injured, we go to an emergency department or clinic. One proposed solution, pay-for-performance programs, would tie higher reimbursement to quality of care—thus reducing funds to lower-performing facilities.But these facilities most need investment and incentives to improve resident care and quality of life. What's more, current performance measures provide only a â€Å"snapshot† of care. Such point-in-time measures cannot gauge how well providers manage the multiple chronic conditions common among elderly patients. To build a viable elder health care system, we need to do the following: Provide five years of stable reimbursement for elder care so that professionals, legislators, and regulators can work together to focus on financial and intellectual strategies.Turn the system for evaluating nursing homes from one based on penalties to one based on partnership, building on the positive results from work done by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' quality improvement organizations. Provide financial incentives to upgrade elder care facilities and invest in health information technology. Establish financial models for reimbursement based on evidence-based clinical research.Provide government and private financial programs that enable the consumer to obtain the care they expect, and possibly deserve, based on individual responsibility of their own wellness. Finally, Curb unnecessary lawsuits, which siphon funds from direct care. If we take these steps, we can create a health system in which older patients take responsibility for their own health and reap the benefits of high-quality care. References J. Derr, Financing Health Care for an Aging Population, The Commonwealth F und, December 2005

Monday, July 29, 2019

Emerging Technologies

Emerging Technologies April 2012 Table of Contents 1. Introduction3 2. Augmented reality4 3. Google's Project Glass5 4. Conclusion6 5. References7 1. Introduction Technology is a big part of our life and something we as humans adapt to easily. We have come to accept that life lived through computer systems is natural. Gadgets and other electronic devices not only help us with our every day lives but they connect us to each other in ways we couldn't even have imagined a few years ago. Technology has become coexistent with our reality and we have created new realities inside these machines. We represent ourselves online.We create new lives that can take their own course. Online reality is becoming, more and more, our lived reality. Every new technology is bringing us closer to a life that is more and more lived digitally. Twenty years ago, none could have even dreamed of the possibilities of personal smart phones or tablet device. Our lives are constantly being changed by connection wi th newer technologies. Using new NFC-based smart phones, we will be able to pay without ever touching our wallets. There are devices that tell us what to wear or what’s the weather will be like and all we need to do is ask.With the speed of progress over the last fiver years, can we imagine how things will look like ten years from now? How is technology going to shape our reality? Will it be through more advanced forms of the digital reality we have created? How are we going to interact with our world? More and more technological companies understand that their survival in the market depends on innovation. Technological changes are coming quickly and their response to those changes must be swift. So how is the biggest search company in the world handling change?Google has proved again and again that it can enter an already overcrowded market and bring something new to it. What can this tell us about brand new technologies being developed within Google itself? Is the search gi ant ready to show us the future? What emerging technologies will impress potential customers? On January 9th 2007, Steve Jobs, then CEO of Apple, unveiled new mobile smart phone to the world – almost overnight it changed our view on how the mobile phone should look and behave. Its success had a major influence on many technology companies.Apple showed that product innovation really leads to market success – you can be the first to do something entirely new and dominate the market with it. This essay will look at Google’s attempt to create ‘the new smart phone’ – to impress world with its view on where the future is headed to and to use this new technology to change the marketplace and change Google. 2. Augmented reality Augmented reality (AR) is a live, direct or indirect, view of the real-world environment, with elements augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data (Wikipedia).AR basically has the ability to add or subtract information from one's perception of reality, through use of wearable computer. Unlike virtual reality, where user is completely immersed inside a synthetic environment, AR allows the user to see and engage with the real world, with virtual objects added on top of it. AR is about supplementing reality, not replacing it. It can be used to not just add virtual objects to a user’s view but to remove them as well. There are two different design approaches to building an AR system. Optical or video technologies can be used for AR systems.Optical, or ‘see-though’ AR works by placing optical combiners before the user’s eye. These partially reflect light and project images, so the user sees combined images of the real environment and the virtual one. This technology is commonly used in military aircrafts, where combiners are attached to the pilot’s helmet. The second type is video, where users don't need to wear any monitors that project AR but where the monitors are fixed or the image is projected in front of the user. The main hardware behind AR are processors, display, ensors and input devices such as accelerometers, GPS and solid-state compasses. AR can be mixed with other senses like touch to provide tactile feedback or sound to enhance the sense of reality. Google is not the first consumer-focused company to research and develop AR. Many others are already pioneering this technology. Gaming companies like Sony and Nintendo are already using AR in their handheld devices. Playstation Vita and Nintendo 3DS already come with â€Å"AR† cards allowing gamers to play games using device cameras to focus on real-life cards.Modern mobile phones have similar uses of AR. Companies like Layar and Yelp use augment reality (with the help of GPS compasses and connection to the internet) to display information that surrounds the user and is viewable through smartphone displays. The user’s mobile phone dis plays real world images, scanned through the device's camera, with added information on its display. For example, Yelp gives information about nearby restaurants and bars, which is overplayed on top of a real-world image. The disadvantage of using AR with handheld devices are its physical constrains.Users have to hold the handheld device in front of them and its view is limited to the handheld’s display. A more promising use of AR is shown by spatial augmented reality (SAR). In 1998, Professor Ramesh Raskar developed Shader lamps, which project imagery onto neutral objects enhancing the object’s appearance using camera, projector and sensors. Raskar in his workshop showed how his device can operate within standard environment. The user is not required to wear the display over their eyes, instead a miniature projector, worn by user, projects the imagery onto flat surface in front of him.The device includes a camera that captures real world images. Sensors in the camera record users gestures and software interprets their meaning. Examples of its use include users taking real-world screenshots just by making simple gestures, camera pointing at products to scan their barcodes, software then searches for products online and shows users more information about the chosen product. Users can annotate real world objects, get real time information about people and services via an internet connection and more.At CES 2012, company Innovega introduced AR-based contact lenses with special filtering systems that allow human eyes to focus on the image projected close to the eye. Normally, the human eye cannot focus on images at this close range but with Innovega's contact lens the image becomes easier to focus on. Without these contact lenses, human eyes would have to be constantly scanned by the AR device and display would have to dynamically adjust focus, which would require additional hardware to read eye movements.What Innovega is attempting to achieve is to eliminate dynamic focus and try to replace it with a clever filtering system through the contact lens. Innovega is already working on the device that will project images on spectacles worn in front of the eye of the user, with wide field of view and very high resolution. These are just few examples of different companies trying to get the best of AR. But dynamic is still the key word to describe the level of innovation. None of these companies has yet produced a final product that would be available to masses. Nor has the best resourced of them – Google. 3. Google's Project GlassOn 4th April 2012, on Google's social network Google plus, the search engine giant showed what it thinks new smart phones should look like – called ‘Glass’ it is a small, wearable device, which uses AR as its interface with the user. The concept video on Glass shows us how Google thinks AR would work in real life (https://plus. google. com/111626127367496192147/posts) and concept p hotos show a wearable device that look identical to standard glasses. The video demonstrates how users of the device can interact with Google's already existing services like Google Maps, Google Music, Google+ Hangouts and more.Google has created a good ecosystem of apps and services and Android, the smartphone operating system developed by Google, uses most of these services successfully today. All of them are greatly integrated for a seamless experience to provide as much information to its user as is required. This environment of apps and services should be integrated into Glass as well, as Google's concept video suggests. But services and apps are only one side of the coin. Gestures and voice control plays important role in controlling this device. Glass should intelligently recognise not just voice commands, but phrases as well.Apple's personal assistant Siri is a great example of the direction Google and Glass should be headed to. But even Siri is far from perfect. It requires constant connection with its servers to interpret the voice commands, it recognises basic phrases but it doesn't follow conversation, as Apple commercials suggest, and commands spoken with heavy accents are not recognised as they should. This is of course because this technology is just evolving and anyone in contact with voice recognition software can confirm that is far from perfect.What Google demonstrates in its concept video is a device that can not only recognise phrases but recognise different meanings to voice commands and, apparently, follow conversation as well. With device like Glass, there is no keyboard attached, so sending text messages, emails, taking pictures, getting directions – all the basic functionalities of modern smartphones – need to be interpreted differently. Another interesting concept is control of the device through gestures. The concept video introduces a simple user interface.It is hidden from the user, unless he performs a gesture or th e device detects a particular head movement. In November 2001, Microsoft officially launched their gaming console Xbox and knowingly entered highly competitive market. They shifted from being solely a professional software company to the hardware and gaming market. Xbox was and today is hugely successful and shows how a technology company can focus not only on software but on hardware as well. Xbox Kinect, the gesture controller for Xbox 360 (second generation Xbox) was launched more recently and proved a huge success as well.Microsoft successfully merged a popular gaming console with effortless gesture and voice command controls. In the world of Nintendo Wii (another gesture-controlled gaming console) this was a natural step to compete in the gaming market. With project Glass, Google have to perfect gesture recognition and offer it in a much smaller device than Microsoft's Kinect. Can this be done? Or is Google creating a level of over expectation that their hardware cannot live up to? There are still major hardware and software limitations to this degree of augmented reality devices.GPS is currently accurate only within 30 feet from the device and doesn't work well indoors. The display that provides visual feedback needs to filter just enough light for the user to see the environment behind it, but enough to actually merge virtual and real environment together. The brightness difference between indoors and outdoors is still a big problem. No display made to date can handle transition from different environments as Project Glass's concept video demonstrates, and there is still issue with human eye focusing on image placed close to it. Glass is akin to a concept car, but not like those commercially ludicrous models automakers show off annually just to demonstrate how impossibly blue the sky can be. Glass would be a new prism through which we would filter every aspect of our lives — just as the smartphone went from zero to always on. ’ (John C Abe ll / Wired. com 2012) Microsoft's Xbox revenue is 14% of its whole earnings to this day and growing. If Google invests its huge resources to develop a device like Glass, can it generate similar revenue? Google started as a internet search company, and from search giant, it transformed itself into advertising provider.Using AdWords and AdSense technology, Google can target particular groups of people who are more willing to respond to an advertisement. Advertisers can submit ads and include lists of keywords relating to the product. When users search the web using keywords provided, Google displays ads as a part of the search result and advertisers pay for every time user clicks on the ad. With AdSense, web masters can integrate Google ads directly on their websites. Google would naturally want to integrate this technology to Glass as well.With wearable computers, users would expose their every day lives and provide huge amount of valuable information about themselves for advertising purposes. Google would get access to information like, where users live, which bars or restaurants they like or which products they usually buy. Glass could record all of this and more, which would, of course, represent huge privacy invasion for many of us. What about ads themselves? How would Google integrate an ad system into wearable device? AR should provide more efficient ways to stream information.No spam emails or ads flashing right in front of your eyes. No unnecessary information about companies, products and services. It should automatically get ads, as required information, when it is actually needed, and when the user requires it, for example information about nearby restaurants, bars or products that interest the user of the device. It should be there to help whenever it’s needed. With Glass Google could change its advertising strategy from gathering and offering ads to providing useful info thought AR much as Yelp provides today but on much bigger scale.Scienti sts working on Project Glass, Babak Parviz, Steve Lee and Sebastian Thurn remind us that this project is just the beginning of a long journey and many things may change in the course of its development. This device is still only an idea, and won't be ready for general release for at least two years. But even concepts can show us how companies, not only Google, can change themselves, adapt to the new technologies and how this change can benefit their future growth. 4. Conclusion It's still early to talk about success or failure of Project Glass.We do not know if Google can successfully develop a device that would meet our expectations. With AR devices like Glass, we could certainly get information about our environment more ‘naturally’ but we will have to exchange our sense of privacy for it. Google has great potential to unlock new revenue streams and, if done right, this may be next step of computing devices that could change our view of reality and maybe next game-cha nging device that will change Google as well. 5. References Spatially Augmented Reality, Ramesh Raskar, Greg Welch, Henry Fuchs (1999) * A Survey of Augmented Reality, Ronald T. Azuma, 1997 * How Google Works, Jonathan Strickland (http://computer. howstuffworks. com/internet/basics/google4. htm/printable / 2012) * Wearable Computing Will Soon Intensify The Platform  Wars, Frederic Lardinois, 2012 * Google Glasses Face Serious Hurdles, Augmented-Reality Experts Say, Roberto Baldwin, 2012 (http://www. wired. com/gadgetlab/2012/04/augmented-reality-experts-say-google-glasses-face-serious-hurdles/? tm_source=Contextly&utm_medium=RelatedLinks&utm_campaign=Previous) * Augmented Reality: Google’s Project Glass engineers, Bruce Sterling, 2012 (http://www. wired. com/beyond_the_beyond/2012/04/augmented-reality-googles-project-glass-engineers) * Augmented Reality’s Path From Science Fiction to Future Fact, John C Abell, 2012 * Project Glass (https://plus. google. com/111626127 367496192147/posts) * Augmented reality, Wikipedia (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Augmented_reality) *

Your choice Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Your choice - Research Paper Example The benefits that accrue to all the stakeholders of the school when students wear school uniforms provide an excellent basis and rationale as to why all students in all schools should wear school uniforms. According to Craik (37) school uniforms have been known to exist long time ago even prior to the thirteenth century.   For instance, in 1222 Archbishop of Canterbury instructed monks to dress in a conventional monastic form of dress. This was possibly the first standardized case of academic attire. In early 16th century, uniforms were utilized and developed into more explicit as diverse fashion styles became unattractive  to the university. The reasons why school uniforms should be encouraged are various. One of the reasons why school uniforms should be made a requirement in schools is that school uniforms build a homogeneous environment amongst students, reducing peer pressure and cases of bullying.  In a school where students dress uniformly, unwarranted competition between students over fashion and trend is eliminated, paving way to reduction of peer pressure. In 2013, national association of elementary school principals conducted a survey that revealed that 86% of management heads of schools agreed that school uniforms have a positive effect in peer pressure. Instances of bullying and belittling other students were reduced significantly when students wore uniforms as opposed to when they didn’t. Another statistical information also revealed that 64% of the schools head admitted that uniforms reduce bullying and discrimination (Brunsma & Rockquemore, 75). Moreover, the other argument that provides the case for school uniforms is that uniforms provide an opportunity for parents to save (Brunsma, 50). Cost-effectiveness comes in whereby parents are only required to purchase the uniforms as specified. They only purchase the clothes a few times a year, depending on how deep their pockets are. On the

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired Research Paper

Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired - Research Paper Example Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired The need for equality among all citizens in the United States have been addressed by the 13th, the 14th, and the 15th Amendment, but a century after the three were issued, there were still strong discriminations lingering in the country. In some counties, it can be seen that regardless of the Declaration of Independence stating that â€Å"all Men are created equal†, the laws still favor one group of people over others (Wright, 2005). Legislatures that passed on Black Codes cut off the rights and privileges of the African Americans, and the persistence of the Jim Crow laws, which placed greater favor to whites over blacks caused the rift to become great enough that the equality of all men under the law was never realized for a very long time (Loevy, 1997). The years preceding the 1960’s showed that many African-Americans still did not enjoy equal rights that they were supposed to have, and segregation in facilities are documented in detail (Skog, 2007). Signage were hung or posted in order to make sure that the populations of whites and the minorities were properly separated. These segregations also showed the differences between the services offered to the two groups of peoples, with the whites having as much as 10 times better services compared to those given to African-Americans (Wright, 2005). If it were not for the rise of civil rights activists such as Fannie Lou Hamer, there might not have been drastic changes in the laws regarding discriminations, particularly in the treatment of African-Americans. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 In 1957, a proposed draft of the Civil Rights Act was formed to study the extent of racial discrimination that is still proliferating in the country. The Civil Rights Commission hoped that by doing so, they could generate enough data to further add arguments for the civil rights supporters as well as in the succeeding legislative fights (Loevy, 1997). The draft also adds the argu ment of the freedom fighters that the need for changes within the prevailing society must be initiated and the intervention must come from the United States government itself. Such a move would not only ensure the proper implementation of the law, but also to fully end the violations being done against blacks in the southern parts of the state (Loevy, 1997). The northern parts of the U.S. had not much problems with the implementation of the bill, and in fact was able to remove overt discrimination because of it (Grofman, 2000). However, the bill had a hard time to take into effect in the south, and the rise in numerous violence towards African-Americans recorded prior to its implementation showed how the bill did not give any immediate help to the oppressed (Skog, 2007). There were also many senators that were known to oppose the implementations of civil rights as well as destroying all bill of civil rights that are handed to them (Loevy, 1997). For others, they argue that the conte nt of the new bill is very much similar to the content of the 1875 Civil Rights Act (Grofman, 2000). However, for those that support the new bill, they argued that the only time that the older bill was able to work was during the Civil War, but after that many state legislatures in the south made counters in the prevalence of the old

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Sex In Our Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Sex In Our Society - Essay Example 113). I agree with Joyce Garity that some of the adverts in teen fashion magazines are to blame for deteriorating morals in the society. The adverts are too suggestive that they end up brain washing the innocent children. An advertisement of Liz Claiborne fragrances showing a couple sprawled on their bed is a perfect example. After seeing this, the teenagers start fantasizing and would be tempted to think that their life is not complete if they are not practising the same. They end up trying this, and before they know it, the worst has happened and the consequences are with them. In addition, it is absurd to feature a naked girl in a teen magazine in the name of advertising cologne. Though the company sales will go up, it is not worth the harm it is causing the society. Above buying the cologne, the teenagers may be tempted to pose naked like the girl in the advert. In their minds, they are out to be famous among their peers. However, they may end up engaging in sexual activities that would ruin their young lives (Soble, 2008, P. 96). As Joyce Garity states, any teenager would be excited to see a young couple display affection publicly. In an advert, a young girl is laying on a luxurious bed in a dimly light room with her lover making her nails. If a suggestive picture like this has to appear in a magazine, it should not be a teenage magazine. Teenagers’ minds are easily washed away by anything they lay their eyes on. Within no time, they will go out experimenting on things that may ruin their lives. Teenagers’ world is full of sexual spontaneity and playfulness. They will take less or no time thinking about a responsible life. Instead, they admire musicians, actors, rock stars and other celebrities whose lives are full of sexual drama. These are their role models, and their talk is about which musician has slept with many women. The young adults rush to the

Friday, July 26, 2019

Part II Dream vs. Reality Get Rich Quick Schemes Essay

Part II Dream vs. Reality Get Rich Quick Schemes - Essay Example No matter what is said or done by advocates or opponents of gambling in all its various forms, it is an activity that is practiced, or tacitly endorsed, by a substantially majority of Americans." This statement, as have been proposals for legalization, has been ignored. These proposals have been rejected and, to data, casino gambling is only legal in a handful of states. Legal prohibitions against gambling have contributed to the emergence of an underground, illegal gambling sector which is not only flourishing but, continually expanding. Estimates place the total gambles illegally wagered over the past year at $48 billion. Apart from this meaning that states are losing an important, and major, source of revenues, there is a more disturbing implication. Within the parameters of an underground, black market gambling industry, the activity is unsupervised with the consequence being the participation of underage youth and the proliferation of no limits' gambling which both sustains gambling addictions and often leads to financial ruin. Through the legalization of gambling, implying the movement of an underground activity to the open, not only will states benefit from a wealthy source of revenue but the supervision of the activity by law enforcement will lead to stricter adherence to both age and ga

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Domestic violence and human rights reserch Research Paper

Domestic violence and human rights reserch - Research Paper Example Children are likewise thought to be mishandled about as frequently as spouses. The elderly also compose an identifiable group of abuse victims whose rights are violated and neglected. Often they are targets of the frustrations of family members who are presumed to care for them. In this regard, the essay is written with the objective of presenting relevant issues about domestic abuse as a human rights violation. Likewise, the discourse would discuss proposed ways to address and possible prevent this dilemma. Definition of Terms According to UNICEF (2000), â€Å"The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993) defines violence against women as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life† (UNICEF, 2). The same source defines dom estic violence as â€Å"violence perpetrated by intimate partners and other family members, and manifested through: physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, economic abuse and acts of omission† (ibid.). ... ed, fear of and control over female sexuality, belief in the inherent superiority of males, and legislation and cultural sanctions that have traditionally denied women and children an independent legal and social status† (UNICEF, 7). Situations where imposition of inequality of power towards another person deemed to possess weakness either in physical strength, educational achievement, economic status, or perceived demographic factors (age, race, culture) have increased tendencies for domestic violence. Consequences The most crucial effect of domestic violence as revealed by various studies is the denial of human rights (UNICEF, 8). Further, domestic violence creates damaging repercussions to victims in the form of physical health injuries, mental health dilemmas and even fatal outcomes, such as death or contracting HIV/AIDS. There are also socio-economic cost identified to be associated with domestic violence, such as medical costs for treatment, law enforcement costs, lower l abor productivity, and decreased quality of life (ibid, 13). Prevention Strategies Due to the delicate nature and scope of the dilemma, domestic violence should be addressed with stringent vigilance and immediate action. The hesitation to report domestic violence due to fear, lack of resources or support systems, or ignorance exacerbate the ability of community workers and government institutions to apply the necessary strategies and interventions to prevent these abusive incidences. The Study Coordinator for WHO, Dr. Claudio Garcia Moreno averred that "domestic violence can be prevented and governments and communities need to mobilize to fight this widespread public health problem" (WHO, par. 10). The fact remains that women, children and the elderly have kept their silence about domestic

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Labor Economics Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Labor Economics - Assignment Example Becker’s concept of taste based discrimination states that firms that do not employ minorities do bear the cost of discrimination together with the minorities themselves. Discriminating firms usually have a higher cost of operation since they bear the cost of discrimination. Becker’s concept shows that minorities in such an environment usually work harder and are more productive hence would accept a lower wage. This means that the cost of production is lower hence the firms become more profitable. The discriminating firms however are at a higher cost as majority employees tend to demand relatively higher wages and their productivity is average. As a result more employees would be required to achieve acceptable productivity. Entry of a non discriminating firm under a constant return to scale means increase in number of employee is directly proportional to productivity. A non discriminating firm that has a high specialization of minorities would ideally have higher productivity per employees and therefore an increase in number of more productive employees would mean a subsequence increase in productivity and thus more profitability. This is because the wage bill is also lower than that of a discriminating firm. Entry of non discriminating firm under decreasing return of scale DRTS would lead to constant production and decreased overhead cost. Also since increase in work force does not adequately increase the production. The cost of having more employees is drastically reduced and since the minority workers produce maximally the cost of the wage bill remains relatively low and hence the firm becomes more profitable. In such a firm it would lead to more efficiency as the production process require less man power for efficiency and use of minority who are efficient and extremely productive would lead to the most desired state of profitability. 3. Suppose that men earn on average

Australian Government Innovative Climate Change Policy Essay

Australian Government Innovative Climate Change Policy - Essay Example It will mean that the equivalent of 20 per cent of Australia’s electricity will come from renewable sources by 2020 is transformed. The world is moving forward and economies which do not start cleaning up now will fall behind. Australia has spent the last decade working out on how to put a price on carbon pollution is the cheapest way to tackle climate change. The Government’s plan for a clean energy future has been negotiated by the Multi-Party Climate Change Committee. The Committee has agreed to a comprehensive set of measures to help fight climate change. The Government is separately investing in further measures to ease the economic transition to a carbon price, as well as taking additional steps to reduce carbon pollution. BACKGROUND AND ESSENTIAL IDEAS The Government has developed a comprehensive plan for a clean energy future. The need for this plan is clear, from both an environmental and an economic perspective. This plan has been devised in response to clear scientific advice that the world is warming, that carbon pollution from human activity creates. Significant risks and those we can avoid the worst potential impacts by reducing carbon pollution. Taking action on climate change is in our national interest. Australia faces acute risks from climate change. Faced with the serious negative consequences for our natural systems (including national icons like the Great Barrier Reef and Kakadu), our economy and our way of life, it would be irresponsible not to play our part in international action on climate change. Taking action sooner means that the transition to a clean energy future can be more gradual, manageable and...This paper outlines the positive effects of the comprehensive climate change policy, maintained by Australian government. More specifically, the paper describes the impact of Federal Government’s Clean Energy Bill, which was enacted in 2011. The Bill introduced carbon pricing mechanism designed to improve environmental and economic efficiency. In addition the energy bill contained innovative mechanisms to shield it from political and administrative cycles. Climate change will not just damage the natural environment. Left unchecked, it also poses risks to Australia’s economic prosperity. Within the purview of the Bill, all businesses will be required to pay for their pollution under this price mechanism. The carbon price will be beneficial to the economy since it will create a financial incentive that will flow throughout the economy. Households will benefit from tax cuts, higher family payments and increases in pensions. The carbon price will also change Australia’s electricity generation by encouraging investment in renewable energy like wind and solar power and the use of cleaner fuels like natural gas. The government will be committed supporting jobs throughout manufacturing, food processing industries and coal mining since The Government’s Renewable Energy Target, combined with the carbon price, will deliver around $20 billion of investment in renewable energy by 2020 in today’s dollars. It will mean that the equivalent of 20 per cent of Australia’s electricity will come from renewable sources by 2020 is transformed. Under the Government’s clean energy plan, the carbon pricing mechanism will establish a clear price path into the future for reduced carbon pollution.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

E-commerce Data Privacy & Security Literature review

E-commerce Data Privacy and Security - Literature review Example In 2001 most popular commercial website, collecting data from the customers, have clearly mentioned privacy policy statements on their websites (Schuele 2005). Moreover, some websites out of these most popular commercial sites have not published a complete privacy policy (Schuele 2005). 1.2 Emphasizing on Privacy One more study shows that online companies emphasize and focus more on online privacy policy rather than any other aspect. Even online security is considered as the second option. Moreover, the study also concluded that online customers are more worried about their privacy rather than online threats, as they are considered to be in control. In addition, the study also demonstrated a comparison between the two decades i.e. 1999-2001 and 2005-2007 which highlighted the factors that are mentioned previously (Parayitam, Desai et al. 2008). 1.3 Focusing on Customer Demands However, study concluded one interesting factor i.e. the rankings and ratings of policies created for Intern et continues to focus on demands of the web users. Moreover, consumer privacy continues to be on top in both the decades (Parayitam, Desai et al. 2008). The amplified awareness by the contributors i.e. legislators and advocates shows interest level is comparatively high. 1.4 Sugar Coating Privacy Policy Clauses It is very common for a web user seeking for a privacy policy will only able to read some pages mentioned in terms of points, applauses etc. In order to enhance customer experience with privacy policies, there must be an interactive medium via which customer can get awareness. Literature related to serious implication was also found, For instance, organizations construct the structure of sentences in a way that suits their legal rights. A study conducted by (Pollach 2007) shows that the structure of sentences in a privacy policy related to a typical online shopping website are sugarcoating data handling practices. They are foregrounding optimistic facets and at the same time back-grounding privacy incursions. 1.5 Approach From Corporate Organizations A study conducted by (Markel 2005). He concluded that corporate organizations gather personal information from their users on four core factors stated below: To provide value added services to special customers. For instance, history of customers reflects high profile of purchasing or selling products via the site. Moreover, these websites also provide forms, in order to register a customer so that he or she can access ‘only members’ portion of the website that may include special discounts and offers. Organizations also customize website contents and design according to the type of customer, in order to modify web experience. The customization is carried out as per customer’s interest that is extracted from the past history of buying and selling products. Moreover, in order to buy any product from the website, corporate organizations require shipping and billing information in order to sell the product to the web user. Corporate organization also trade customer information to third parties. This business activity is carried out to strengthen business relationships. The information can only be used for online marketing and advertisement purposes.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Journal Article on Juvenile Delinquency Essay Example for Free

Journal Article on Juvenile Delinquency Essay The study made by Kaplan and Johnson corresponds to the value of how people and corresponding social institutions perceive juvenile delinquency. In particular, it tackled the capacity of creating punishments and sanctions as an ideal norm that needs to be pursued. Such direction then fostered better means of analyzing the response of different social institutions towards these actions. Similarly, the aspect of labeling within the social model was also studied. In particular, it takes into consideration how this process corresponds to how individuals ascertain relationships and function towards functioning effectively within the specific standards established (Kaplan and Howard, p. 99). To achieve this perspective, the process of labeling was studied and determined by its capacity to promote deterrence. Similarly, careful study was also made in how a relationship may exist between the processes of social sanctions and the application of appropriate standards related to a model of deviant behavior (Kaplan and Johnson, p. 100). Through this, the study was able to establish specific patterns that allow the labeling process during deviant behavior to explain the motivation and resistance towards engagement. Such actions then help explain the manner on how people relate with social institutions and others accordingly. After careful analysis, the study then illustrated the value of utilizing labeling within the deviant behavior. Here, the principle is used to create better means of fostering distinctions between responses among individuals and social institutions (Kaplan and Johnson, p. 116). Seeing this, the idea then of labeling becomes both constructive in its capacity to motivate a change in behavior and deterrence of deviance. On the other hand, it also brings about a negative outcome that it promotes biased views and alienation among individuals who engage in such actions. Due to this, the principle then opens up greater opportunities to correlate in the process of role development and the creation of identity and behavior according to specific norms and establish specific responses due to negative social sanctions especially in the formulation of deviance. Reflecting on the article, it can be seen that the process of labeling remains to be an important component shaping perceptions among individuals concerning deviant behavior. It carries along the principle of facilitating norms and maintenance of status quo especially within different social institutions. Due to this, it both serves as deterrence for those who try to engage in such actions and hampers the relationship among peers. Such action then ensures the validity of ensuring stability among individuals and the manner they act and react to their specific environments. Similarly, the idea then of social controls provided towards deviant behavior remains to be innate in social norms. Analyzing these realities, it can be surmised that it functions towards establishing better means for people to act. By setting up these rules and standards, the manner of relationships and functions among people becomes effective and viable. Overall, the usefulness of this article revolves around its capacity to effectively understand the relationships surrounding deviance, social control, and social sanctions. It also tries to support the tenets of deviance theory by providing specific principles shaping and supplementing both its development and application of control. Such actions then increase the likelihood of establishing concrete definition and analysis. Lastly, this direction then opens up the capacity to understand the process of deviant behavior in the lens of sociology; as it tries to understand how it creates specific roles, develops relationship, and maintenance of control.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The Objective Of Zakat Theology Essay

The Objective Of Zakat Theology Essay The socket has been introduced in pre-colonial Malaysia. Before the British colonial Malaysia, the village in the country, as in other parts of the world developed through land settlement or colonization. One of the popular methods was the collective Pondok system, which was particularly common in the Muda Region of Kedah. By this system, a group of settlers would gather around and a person who is well -versed in Islamic Knowledge or who had already established himself as a religious teacher .After the they found a suitable place , they will build their Pondok (huts) around a Madras; a religious center for worship as well as teaching. In the case where the group has been established, they would invite a religious teacher from elsewhere to set up a Madras among them.This religious teacher was also the Imam of the community, in the sense that he led five prayers daily in the mosque or madsarah. The group of peasant will be going out to open land around the clusters of their Pondok, leaving their children to the teacher for religious education at day time. For those wives who are unable to work with their spouse in the land also will obtained religious instruction from the teacher. The peasants will receive religious at least one or twice a week and longer on Friday because it was a day of rest. They will spend more time in the mosque than the field. As an appreciation for the service provided by the teacher, the peasants usually will collectively clear a piece of land and cultivate if for the teacher. Slowly, as the land become more productive and the production level of each peasant family exceeds the nisab of 480 Gantang  [1]  for each harvesting, the peasant family would pay skate at their 10 % of the gross yield of the paddy. According to Afifudin, those early days all the skate form a specific group in the Pondok system would go to the teacher. If a group of 50 sacked paying peasants would contribute a minimum of 2400 Gantang each year .As time goes by, the wealth of the teacher can be accumulated. The teacher can use the socket for the expansion of Madras. During the colonial period in Malaysia especially Kelantan, zakat was administered by imam,who is is the local religious leader managed the zakat collection and surpervised by the division of inherited party.In order to finance the intensified activities ,the state required imams to surrender part of the zakat they collected at the village level.However,this menthod is only partially successful due to the British regime replaced Grahmans ,the Islamic administration .The Grahman took charge of civil administration ,he divested the imams of their civil function .which were transfer to the headman (ketua kampong) . According to secret institution in Malaysia .During British Colonial Period , The segregation between religion, custom and temporal matters took place during this period. All Islamic and Malay customs related matters were administered by a special body known as Majlis Agama Islam Negeri (MAIN). Other than that, the rest came under the purview of the British civil and criminal law system (Matters associated with socket were administered by MAIN. Accordingly, in Zakat Satu Tinjauan, Kelantan was the first state to establish the body which later became a model to other Malay States. Under this model, the Imam (spiritual leader) has been empowered to govern skate related matters and a portion of zakat collection would be delivered to the state government as a financial resource for Islamic affairs. That was how the administration of soaked developed until today which remain under the supervision of State Islamic Councils. After the independence of Malaysia, New Economic Policy has been introduced.The zakat fund is use for investment purpose .In the early 1970s ,the minister of National and Rural Development ,Encik Ghaffae Baba,who was also the chairman of Mara ,urged all the state Religious Councils to invested substantial portion of their money (mostly derived from the collection of zakat) in Amanah Saham Mara .The objective is to eliminate the income gap between the ethnic group in Malaysia,especially the Muslim and Chinese. The objective of Zakat The primary objective of Zakat is to elevate the spirit of human being above the material acquisition.Consequently, Islam does not view the zakat payer as a mere of sore of funds,but as a person who always needs purification and cleansing, both spiritually and materially. The prophet (p) summaries this purpose in the ayat ,sadaqa from hier wealth by which you might purify and cleanse them. Zakat, when paid out of submission to the commad of Allah ,is a mean of purifying the soul of a Muslim from greed and miserliness.The vices of selfishness and greed must be controlled in order for human beings to elevate their spirits ,to succed in their social realtions in his life ,and gain admittance to paradise .Allah Almighty says, Truly man is niggardly! (17:100) and But people are prone to selfish greed.)Zakat is a purifier that trains Muslims to give and spend selflessly .It liberates their souls from the love of wealth and slavery to materials gains and acquisitions. On top of that, zakat is a mean of training Muslims on virtues of generosity as much as it is a means of purificarion from greed .Being paid in repetitive pattern year after year ,regular zakat as well as zakat al-fitr train Muslims to give and spend for charitable purpose. The Quran describes believers as the righteous who have the virtue of spending for good reasons.The very second sura of the Quran begins, Alif .Lam .Mim.That is the Book with no doubt .In it is guidance for the godfearing :those who believe in Unseen and establish the prayer and give of what we have provided for them.This exhortation is reiterated many times in the Quran ,such as Those who give away their wealth by night and by day ,secretly and openly ,: Those who give in times of both ease and hardship and The steadfast ,the truthful ,the obedient ,the givers ,and those who seek forgivness before dawn. Also ,once a person is trained to spend on public interests and to give to his brethren out of his own wealth, he is most likely to be freed from any urge to transgress on other peoples wealth and possessions. Besides that, zakat trains people to acquire divine characteristic.If man purified of miserliness and greed and becomes accustomed to the habit of giving and spending, his soul is elevated abouve low human trait of covetousness, Truly man is niggardly! (17:100) and aspire to the height of Divine perfection, since one of the characteristic of Allah is absolute and unlimited mercy, powers, theoretical and practical .Allah obliges zakat in order to perfect human souls in graciousness to oher people ,as the prophet says, Train yourselves to attributes of Allah.This encouragement to spend throught zakat and voluntary charity resulted with time,u in the emergence of charitable trusts all over Muslim world,trusts devoted not only to helping the poor and needy but to all causes for human beings as well as animals. In addition ,zakat is to shows expression of thankfulness to Allah .Gratitude and thankfulness are among the best characteristics of human beings.Zakat is an expression of thankfulness to Allah for the bouties .He gives on us .Allah, says al-Ghazali, has gives on human spiritual and materials bounties.Prayers and other acts of physical worship express gratitude for the blessing of creation, while zakat and other acts of donator worship express gratitude for the material blessings of Allah .The concept that zakat is thanks Allah for His bounties is s widespread and deeply rooted in the consciousness of Muslims that it is common to say that one must give zakat in thanks for the grace of sight ,hearing,health ,knowledge, etc. Also, zakat stimulates personality growth in those who pay it .Through helping others overcome their financial difficulties , zakat payers are enriched by feelings of self-worth and fufilment . Zakat also helps offer the payers self to others and grow throught helping them and gives the payer a noble sense of victory over his base desires and material drives-over his owns shaytan. Last but not least, zakat is to purifies wealth.This is because zakat is a right to the poor , not paying it means keeping something that belongs to others intermingled worth ones wealth and this brings Allahs wrath on the whole wealth. The Prophet (p) says, If you pay zakat on your wealth ,you have taken away its evil. Types of zakat Zakat is divided into several types : Zakat of Income Zakat of Savings Zakat of Business Zakat of KWSP/LTAT Zakat of Share Zakat of Livestock Zakat of Gold and Silver Zakat of Crops Zakat of Income Extra payment received by an individual from their employer or individual itself in the form of physical energy or physically or professional employment for specific day, month and yearly also been required to pay zakat. Employment income includes: 1) The annual salary 2) Other allowances 3) Unpaid wages 4) Other remuneration such as bonuses, etc. Method Of Calculation First Method Using gross income (without deduction) 2.5% on gross income per year. Example : Total gross income per year : RM 25,000.00 Amount of zakat (2.5%) : RM 625.00 Monthly Payment : RM 625.00 /12 = RM 52.08 Second Method Using the net income (Income year less allowable expenses per year) x 2.5% Expenses allowed deduction (per year): -:- Self : RM 8,000.00 Wife : RM 5,000.00 Children : RM 1,000.00 KWSP : 11% from gross income workers Parents Contribution : RM (amount given) per month x 12 months Contributions to organizations that pay the zakat (for example: Lembaga Tabung Haji, Takaful) Zakat of savings Contribution of workers and employers to KWSP People Provident Fund , Soldiers Provident Fund (LTAT) are also required to pay zakat as the concept is similar to savings but the different is savings of KWSP and LTAT could not be withdraws anytime wherenever they like and it is subject the rules. Fixed Deposit Fixed deposit of RM 100,000 was kept for a year without the excluded (assumed nisab charity at that RM 9430.00) Then charity is required to produce are: RM 100,000 x 2.5% = RM 2.500 Regular Deposit Method Of Calculation (Duration haul is January 5, 1999 until February 7, 2000) (Assuming nisab of charity at that RM 3,323.50) So zakat are : (Balances with lower interest bank refused WITH) X 2.5% (RM 9,115.00 RM 115.00) x 2.5% = RM 225.00 Zakat of Business Zakat been given out by Sole Propirate, Partnership, Cooperative Society, Societies and Organization which had reached one year and the time limit. Method Of Calcutions [ ( Current Assets Current Liability ) + Coordination x Percentage of Muslims Share x ZAKAT ABILITY ( 2.5 % ) ]. Zakat of KWSP Contributions of employees and employers into the Employees Provident Fund (EPF), Lembaga Tabung Angkatan Army (LTAT),or the like imposed zakat as conceptually the same as saving money, but with the difference amount of savings, LTAT and so on shall not be issued at anytime because and subject to regulations that is fixed. CALCULATION METHOD : METHOD 1 2.5% of the contribution that issued once money issued. METHOD 2 2.5% of contribution every employee is based on the annual statement Zakat of shares Zakat which is given out for investment which hasreachedh its time limit and minimum value. METHOD OF CALCULATION 2.5 % the value of lowest share share which is own for one year minus for shared borrowed. If the lowest value is not determined, use the value beginning early in the year or in the year or whichever is the lowest. For shareholders which must be owned by investors. Muslims in the long term to gain control a company or firm so his payment for zakat will be based on the calculations that it will not affect the the importance of other Muslims to get hold of the company. If any of the owners shares has not reached one year, but the whole property being changed for a number of time for one year from shares to cash and vice versa, so use the lowest value with the mixture of money and shares,shares with basic to count zakat multiply 2.5 %. Zakat of Livestock Livestock zakat is property zakat that required to be taken out in perfect the conditions. Domestic animal that obliged to pay zakat is among them such as goat, , cattle , camel, sheep, buffalo. Prophet S.A.W said From Muaz Ibnu Jabal, had said, RasulullahS.A.W was sending me to Yaman and ask me to collect zakat from each of 30 cows, 1 lamb musinnah (1 female cattle aged up to 3 years ) and every 30 cows, tabi or tabiah ( 1 male or female cattle aged up to 2 years). The livestock that we would like to give a zakat must be perfect and no defects such as missing the foot or hand and so on. COWS/BUFFALOES Quantities Zakat Amount / Sex 30-39 tail 1 tail, age 1 year / male 40-59 tail 1 tail, age 2 year / female 60-69 tail 2 tail, age 1 year / male 70-79 tail 1 tail, age 1 year / male and 2 tail, age 2 year / male 80-89 tail 2 tail, age 2 year / female 90-99 tail 3 tail, age 1 year / male 100-109 tail 1 tail, age 2 year / female and 2 tail, age 1 year / male 110-119 tail 2 tail, age 2 year / female and 1 tail, age 1 year / male 120 tail above tail, age 2 year / female and 3 tail, age 1 year / male GOATS Quantities Zakat Amount / Sex 40-120 tail 1 tail, age 2 year / male or female 121-200 tail 2 tail, age 2 year / male or female 201-399 tail 3 tail, age 2 year / male or female Subsequent additions : Every of 100 tail plus plus 1 tail, age 2 year / male or female SHEEP Quantities Zakat Amount / Sex 40-120 tail 1 tail, age 1 year/ male @ female 121-200 tail 2 tail , age 1 year / male @ female 201-399 tail 3 tail, age 1 year/ male @ female Subsequent additions : every 100 tail increased by 1 tail,age 1 year / male @ female. Zakat of Silver and Gold Gold and silver is a mineral that is required to charity. This is because these metals are very useful as it uses an exchange value of all things. As for other jewelry than gold and silver like diamond, pearl, silk, copper, are not obligatory zakat on it. Nisab zakat gold used = 200gram Gold zakat Nisab unused = 85gram Zakat Of Crops Zakat which is upon basic food which has reached the stage of satisfaction for the state which has 363 gantang / 1300 kg like paddy, wheat, cereals and so on.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Great Debaters And Henry David Thoreau Philosophy Essay

The Great Debaters And Henry David Thoreau Philosophy Essay To begin with, lets get clear that modern society is the product of deep humans thought. We all act and live within defined and established liberal-democratic rules, norms and beliefs with the core value of individual, which we are accustomed to perceive as something natural. However, who or what have improved values proclaimed by French Revolution at first? It is reasonably supposed that great thinkers worth to be called the primary source. Today, there is the attempt to draw analogues between James Farmer, Jr. and David Thoreau, whose impacts to philosophical thought development hardly can be overvalued. It is stated that these two personalities are similar with views of success in America. This similarity is grounded on equal value of Civil Disobedience. Obviously, plenty of interconnections can be mentioned. However, there is the view on the most strong parts. What is American success for David Thoreau and James Farmer, Jr.? After some analysis providing, it is argued that both these great thinkers followed one general belief. Here is the brief circuit. The greatest value of humankind is the mind, which is only useful to define what is wrong and right. However, it is always oppressed and restricted by law, traditions and states in common. According to James Farmer, Jr. and David Thoreau, minds release is the only proper solution to get American success, and Civil Disobedience is the revolutionary tool to achieve desired aim. In fact, both James Farmer, Jr. and David Thoreau determine Civil Disobedience as the kind law and right opposing. Eventually, minds awaking is already can be called Civil Disobedience according to them. At second, the core value of individual is placed in the center of their philosophy. Lets point out some supporting particularities from The great Debaters directed by Danzel Washington and Civil Disobedience written b y Henry David Thoreau. Oppressed mind. This was the main unfortunate reality people had to accept at times of great thinkers the times of racial discrimination and socio-economic oppression. To support this claim, lets remind some part from The great Debators, when Mr. Tolson spoke to Mr. Law about slaves owner Lynch., who liked to say: Keep the slave physically strong, but psychologically week. Leave him body, but take his mind(The Great Debators). This quote in film doesnt seem to be random. Considerably, it was put to line out oppressed mind of Color people, as the main background for racial discrimination. Considerably, this fact recognition is the first step to get entire American success, according to James Farmer Jr.. Similar view can be found out in Civil Disobedience by Henry David Thoreau: The mass of men serve the state thus, not as men mainly, but as machines, with their bodies. In most cases there is no free exercise whatever of the judgment or of the moral sense; but they put themselves on a level with wood and earth and stones. Such command no more respect than men of straw or a lump of dirt. Yet such as these even are commonly esteemed good citizens. They are as likely to serve the devil, without intending it, as God (Thoreau). According to this quote, the start point of Thoreaus is absolutely similar to Farmer. However, one reasonable question appears why people perceive wrong as right? The answer is in harmful foundations of society and peoples silent obedience. Unreasonable value of law. Total faith in Law and its corresponding, is determined by Farmer and Thoreau as key premise to depressed mind and common oppression consequently. The law has not right to be perceived as the only source of truth, justice and proper-being. Both thinkers were tolerant to this idea and appropriate manifestations are easy to be found out. Lets remind the scene of final debates with Harvard from The Great Debators. Participant from Harvard team claimed that: We have no right to decide what laws are good or bad. Nothing that can defile the rule of law is moral(The Great Debators). This quote is strong with the entire picture of the valid belief in law that caused oppressed minds and racial discrimination consequently, according to James Farmer Jr.. Do you remember how he opposed this statement? If no, here is it: Unjust law is not the law(The Great Debators). Our mind defines what is good or bad and this is the greatest value to resist injustice laws influence. Quite similar approach is showed out in Thoreaus Civil Disobedience: Unjust laws existà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ If the injustice is part of the necessary friction of the machine of government, let it go, let it go; perchance it will wear smooth certainly the machine will wear out. If the injustice has a spring, or a pulley, or a rope, or a crank, exclusively for itself, then perhaps you may consider whether the remedy will not be worse than the evil; but if it is of such a nature that it requires you to be the agent of injustice to another, then, I say, break the law. Let your life be a counter friction to stop the machine(Thoreau). Being influenced by different aims, James Farmer Jr. and David Thoreau are similar with the common persuasion. They did not resist the nature of law as needful regulation. They were against the foolish laws, which had no right to be proclaimed and perceived as life guideline. Civil Disobedience is the synonym to Revolution. In fact, it is rather curious situation around the direct meaning of Civil Disobedience. The point is that this idea stated as the key one in book and movie, but no one source gives us clear quote about its meaning. Considerably, audience is welcome to generate own one. In this regard, Civil Disobedience can be defined as the brave challenge of mind to dreadful injustice. James Farmer Jr. and David Thoreau are straight with call to oppressed of this challenge giving and this is their Revolution. Remind the main scene from The Great Debators, when James Framer Jr. took the last victorious word: I have the right, the duty to resistà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦with violence or civil disobedience. You should pray, I choose the last(The Great Debators). David Thoreau is not so strong with claim, but not less convincing: All machines have their friction; and possibly this does enough good to counterbalance the evil. At any rate, it is a great evil to make a stir about it. But when the friction comes to have its machine, and oppression and robbery are organized, I say, let us not have such a machine any longer. In other words, when a sixth of the population of a nation which has undertaken to be the refuge of liberty are slaves, and a whole country is unjustly overrun and conquered by a foreign army, and subjected to military law, I think that it is not too soon for honest men to rebel and revolutionize(Thoreau). In this order, both thinkers are interconnected with the same belief in public awakening. Whatever dreadful factor is (racial discrimination or socio-economic injustice) oppressed are right and even have to struggle what will lead to common well-being. Are Farmers and Thoreaus views on American success similar? Definitely, yes. However, there is more relevant question. Were these views recognized and adopted? At the first glance, we are still ruled by the law and obey same norms of behavior, but one significant change was implemented. The nature of laws was transformed and this fact is supported by protected liberal values with individual in the center. The mind, instead of majoritys will, became the primary source of every law and this is the greatest victory of common humans thought, and outstanding thinkers particularly. Sources Thoreau, David. Civil Disobedience. The free library, n.d.. Web. 05 April 2011. The Great Debators. Let me watch this, n.d.. Web 05 April 2011.

Personal Narrative- Nearly Fatal Car Accident Essay -- Personal Narrat

The fluorescent lights blinded me as I tried to open my eyes. Where am I, I thought to myself? I jolted my head back and forth desperately trying to figure out where I was. I heard a voice say, "Hold him down, we are almost there." A sharp pain ran down my back to my feet. All I could see were lights flashing and shadows moving in all directions. The rolling bed that I was on stopped abruptly and a mask was placed over my face. I tried not to breathe, but in less than a second I was unconscious. In no apparent order multiple scenes began to flash through my head. My thoughts turned to nothing, and for one minute all I saw in my mind was an everlasting black hole accompanied by a single deafening beep. Suddenly, I awoke to the clanging sound of my alarm clock. I must have had a bad dream I thought to myself as I turned on the faucet to wash my face. It was eleven in the morning, and everyone in my family was sitting in the living room watching television. I wasn't quite sure what the day was. Everything was all too familiar. I figured it was Sunday, but I wasn't sure. The smell of pancakes and bacon floated through the air from the kitchen to where I was standing in the living room. I made my way past my sisters and my mom and sat down at the bar in the kitchen hoping my dad would serve me breakfast so that I would not have to get up to get it. "Good morning," I said to my dad as I sat down. He was standing with his back to me as he flipped over some pancakes. "I see you're up bright and early this morning," my dad said as he turned to look at me. I chuckled as I replied, "Yup sure am." Then I added, "Hey dad, who won the Texas ATM game?" "They don't start playin' until two o'clock." That was the answer I was looking for. ... ...rder multiple scenes began to flash through my head. My thoughts turned to nothing, and for one minute all I saw in my mind was an everlasting black hole accompanied by a single deafening beep. When I became conscious, the same fluorescent lights were shining down on me. This time, there was a man in all white whose face was silhouetted by the lights. I thought I was dead and that I was looking at an angel. The man spoke, "Logan, do you know what has happened to you?" "Wha, huh, I. .ooo..what." "Logan, do you know that you were in a very serious car accident?" "Yeah, I mean I think so. I thought it was all a dream." "You are a very lucky person. Many people would never survive such an accident. Not having anything more than a bad concussion is a miracle." "What day is it? Where are my parents?" "Just lay there calmly and I will go get them."

Friday, July 19, 2019

Apartment Sale Proposal :: essays research papers

VINTAGE REALTY GROUP Subject: A One Bedroom Apartment Unit at the Bay Garden Neighborhood Dear Mr. The 1311 apartment unit offers a breathtaking view on the Bay and the city skyline. It has been fully renovated, also with careful details that enhance its natural beauty. You can call this apartment unit beautiful. You might consider it convenient, or even call it relaxing. But most importantly, we believe this is the place you can call home. The entire living room area overlooks the Bay and exclusive Star Island with magnificent sunsets and cruise ships at a distance. Wall-to-wall white Italian marble floors add to its beauty. A remarkable bathroom features Calcutta gold marble floors and high quality Kohler fixtures. A full kitchen provides you with views of the Bay and a cute dinning area. Practical and convenient Murphy bed that folds into the wall can accommodate extra visitors or a growing family. Two air conditioning units keep each room at the optimum temperature. Added inner railing that blend with the window frames can accommodate a  ¾ inch thick sheet of plywood and provide extra protection and peace of mind in case of any weather disturbances. Bay Garden is a 14-story building at 1450 Bay Road, Miami Beach, located just a few blocks from Lincoln Road, with its classy shops and gourmet restaurants. Building includes a same floor laundry room, easy access parking, beautiful swimming pool surrounded by palm trees and a fabulous Art Deco district location in South Beach. You will be close to the action and the fun. However, at the same time you will enjoy endless hours of peace and quiet by the Bay. Everything is at a walking distance including Regal Cinemas Theater complex, legendary Ocean Drive, the beach, and South Shore Hospital. Priced to sell at $93, 000, the unit is built to last more than a

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Who are the real winners and losers in RJR Nabisco takeover

Most Of us looks at LOBO transactions from outs idà ©e and have completely different viewpoint how these transactions are done. Barbarians at the Gate presents a n insider's perspective. We somehow have these believe that when there is billions of dollars involved in transactions, Coo's, investors, investment bankers make their decisions based on numbers, trying g to be objective to make rational decisions and very seldom let their subjectivity such as their ego to drive thee r decisions.However after reading the book, I realize how wrong we all are. This paper focuses on what the management team did wrong that cause them to fail and who are the real winners from this transaction. Why management team lost When Ross Johnson proposed a levered buyout, he was sure he would win. H e thought that Or's directors would give him the deference due a chief executive, never realizing that the b road would have no choice legally or morally but to treat him as an outsider.The following factors h ighlights why management team lost. Remaining Equity: The board tried to keep the company as unbroken as poss. able to minimize the negative effect on employees. However the management team planned to keep only t e tobacco business and sell the entire food business after the acquisition. Employees' benefits: Management focused only on employees who would sat y and did not care about employees who would lose their jobs.Ross Johnson did a mistake during one of his interviews regarding potential layoff in the Atlanta headquarters by saying â€Å"those workers had port able jobs and could find employment elsewhere†. Loosing boards trust: Even though Johnson insisted that some portion in queue TTY would be divided among workers, only six names emerged besides his own. Too much for too few, this s what the directors thought, which shocked them. In the end, Ross Johnson lost the battle when he refuse d to guarantee the benefits of those same workers.Choice of bankers and lack of cla rity. Choosing only one banker whom Ross Joe hone's friend suggested was a big mistake. Ross Johnson did not have a clear overall approach and was cons sisterly following Shearers Salmon's advises. Why KIRK won Clear strategy: Recruit every significant player so that the other bidding group s would not be able to retain them and left the management-Shearers bidding group with only one available e player, Salomon Brothers, with significant access to capital market.Reading board's mind: Keeping its options open, KIRK did not disclose fully its Eng-term plans and tried consistently read the board's mind and to act based on it (for example, guar noted severance and other benefits for employees who would lose their jobs, or the announcement to Pl an to hire Paul Stitch as the chairman and CEO in order to mitigate the uncertainties regarding the business as, since he has been with company previously and showed due diligences in his position). Who are the real winner and losers?

Bilingualism in the United States Essay

in that location ar umteen arguments that hand oer advocated for multilingualism to be encouraged in the coupled States. There is unmatchable confederacy that claims it makes foreigners tactile property accommodated and accommodated and also to facilitate the knowledge of thousands on non- incline communicate students who go for studies. On the new(prenominal) hand there atomic number 18 those who claim it leads to a national disunity. The paper get out look at these twain sides of the debate and lastly take a stand on why the US should provide multilingual services to its im migratorys princip onlyy by basing its argument on reasons derived from the benefits gained on its fosteringal, social and stinting aspects. multilingualistism tooshie be taken to mean fluent standard use of devil rows in the sidereal day to day communication. Scientist crap been adequate to disposition that being able to treattwo wording is even more(prenominal) of import than j ust being able to let a conversation with single(a)sof variant backgrounds. They deliver proved that multilingualism makes one smarter. Bilingualism can befool the effect of improving a close toones cognitive skills that are in no manner related to nomenclature. There is an increasing diversification of ethnic and racial diversification in the get together States today. Currently, over 40 million expression-minority populate take a breather in the unite States with the projections expected to step-up with epoch.Im migratorys and learners from all over the world suffer in the united state a situation that should naturally pave the track for bilingualism.Debates surrounding bilingualism get to been brought forward term and again as the get together States community induces more diverse. The big question mud should incline be made the authorised oral communication? Should there be a prohibition of other spoken communications other than side In government serv ices and unrestricted services and even in schools? Should non- slope verbalizeers be taught using their indwelling language, position or both languages? In short, the debate has time and again been about whether bilingualism should be patently encouraged or outright prohibited. various scholars presented different views basing their arguments on what the effect of bilingualism whitethorn bring to the United States. Proponents like of side- only if argued that bilingual lead to national disunity ethnic sort out isolation and even encourage economic disparities between the rich and the poor (Mujica, 508). Opponents, on the other hand, matt-up that the side only movement could violate the civil rights of the migrant in the United States. Considering the number of non- position speech immigrants and the number of non-citizen students in the United States, bilingualism should non be an option exclusivelyacivil rightso that no group feels sidelinedThe controversy over bilingual was partly whether bilingual breeding programs should be introduced into the system. It was until min-1960s that bilingual instruction was initiated. However, bilingual development teacher training was introduced later in 1974 (Garcia, 391). horizontal though some scholars affirm that foreign learners be taught in the face language to since teaching them in their intrinsic language would be one trend or another delay their education (Crawford, 595). Research shows that the contrary to their beliefs bilingual skill is not time wasting as gives the learners an advantage of acquiring a reciprocal ohm languageand be able to brood their learningprocess. Crafordstates that bilinguals program learners tend to outperform the other non-bilingual counterparts. This fact is supportedby scientific research proving that the bilingual experience improves the mavens executive function qualification such learners good problem solvers than their counterparts. Bilingual children tend to out-perform monolingual children on exercises that accept concentration. Research shows that bilingual speakers are check in cognitive control and attention. Proponents of bilingual education assert that any non- position speaking student taught in their mother saliva and then position, the student is capable of learning English in a more efficient manner. Bilingual program opponents slake believe that it does not mainstream the learners into the system of education, therefore, trust at a disadvantage (Crawford, 594). remote to these beliefs the learnersImprove their skills both in English and their native language. When children are exposed to both his native language and English in a learning environment, they lead queue up it shameless to use their mother patois. It will consequently help them develop a frame of mind thatcan substantially conceptualizethe English language. Since United States does not have a national language completeicially recognized, some grou ps in the United States believe that the presence of foreign languages poses as threats to the traditional English language. Bilingualism does not in any way corrode the English language in the United States but in turn serves the purpose of interconnecting international communities. Those who do not support bilingual education also argue that it is dearly-won and wasteful as it has to be through with(p) in other languages other than English. taking into account the outcomes of bilingual education and precondition the number of non-English speaking people residing in the United States, the cost of this form of education is neither wasteful nor too big-ticket(prenominal) (Fallows,23).Since the mid- 1900s, what has become explicit is whether individuals should maintain their native language use alongside English or whether English should supplant the authoritative migrant languages. During this period, there came up a number of cases interpreted as large-hearted to towards bil ingualism. Bilingualism is crucial in the United States since it is dwell by individuals from various backgrounds. This is to ensure that all American citizens especially the migrants feel recognised and not discriminated against. Migrants who are non-English speakers are more likely to feel sidelined, and their civil rights violate in a setting where they are on the whole subjected to the traditional American language especially in schools and habitual service. Mujica argues that it is dearly-won for the government to isolate non- English speakers linguistically (581). He believes that all migrants should function in the traditional English language addicted the fact that English is going global. A scenario like the one being proposed by Mujica whitethorn lead to some of the migrant communities being completely ignored. Fallow confirms that some of the adult migrants neer end up learning the English language (263). This will mean that such adults will never be privileged t o government and public service. Bilingualism should be encouraged further so as to enable the migrants fit into the environment. For example, these people whitethorn not be able to use the road when every sign on is written in English or even buy yields when all product description isin English. Bilingualism also is important as it enables the non-English speaking individuals exercise their thorough rights during major elections in the United States many another(prenominal) English speaking individuals may feel that native languages of the migrants such as Spanish are there to erode the English language. Theseresults fromthe constant influx of large counts of migrants added to the increase ethnic awareness. The migrant, on the other hand, may wish to retain their mother tongue as a way of preserving their heritage. These migrants may feel the need to be in touch with their background while in the United States. The native language is one of the major ways of preserving heritag e and culture. It is such a treat that inspired S. I. Hayakawa atomic number 20 senator to proposeconstitutional amendments to have English used as the national language. such(prenominal) an amendment was unnecessary since English by defacto is the language used in the United States. English is one of the most established languages world(a) and in the United States therefore it is completely unreasonable to believe that a dwarfish immigrant group living in a neighborhood can threaten its existence.Bilingualism increases the throw off of people with whom we can interact. It exposes an individual to different cultures, friendship and experiences. Being able to speak a second language does not just ease a somebodys communication with others it also allows an individual fully to experience the cultures that associatewith that circumstance language. phraseologys and cultures are intertwined, and the speaker of a language is exposes to the traditions and beliefs of the native speake rs. (Crawford, 959) Believed,that an individual may never become productive without learning the English language. During the drafting of the American constitution, John Adams suggested that English should be used as the United States official language but was rejected on the grounds of incompatibility with the liberty spirit (Hakuta, 165). Being able to speak different languages can open doors to many opportunities both academic and employment. Crawford says that sometimes immigrants scraps to learn the English language and run low to become useful living off welfare (595). This is a kind of misconception that Americans accommodate towards immigrants that without learning the English language, one can never be able to become productive in their life.The issue of bilingualism is as old as human migration itself into the United States. From the pre-colonial time, bilingualism was already widespread and appreciated. Many states have embraced the bilingual programs and dropped the English-only programs. Bilingualism is especially in the education system has enabled learners to achieve their educational goals condescension their inability to understand or speak English language. This has been achieves through bilingual educational program. Through the use of bilingual language in the United States, non-English speaking migrants have found themselves being accommodated by the government. The migrants have been able to retain their history, culture and heritage. Even though some of the English speakers may feel that their tradition is threatened by the presence of the various native languages in the United States, it is practically impossible for English to be assimilated into the other languages. Even though English is the language, the Americans speak, numerous suggestions had been made in the past to make it the official language in all the states. This was because some individuals felt threatened by the rapid harvesting of the migrant communities.Reference sFallows, James. ENGLISH HAS NOTHING TO FEAR-VIVA BILINGUALISM. rude(a) Republic 195.21 (1986) 18-19.Crawford, James. Bilingual education History, politics, theory, and practice. Trenton, NJ Crane Publishing Company, 1989.Garca, E. Spring/Summer. coachs Note. In E. Aguilar (Ed.), Focus on diversity, 1, (2), pp. 1-2. University of California, Santa Cruz National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning. 1992a,Hakuta, Kenji. Mirror of language The debate on bilingualism. Basic Books, 1986.Mujica, Mauro E. At Issue Should English Be the Official Language of the United States? CQ Researcher 19 Jan. 1996 65.Source catalogue