Sunday, January 26, 2020

Qualities of the Hero: Comparing Gilgamesh and Odysseus

Qualities of the Hero: Comparing Gilgamesh and Odysseus The Epic of Gilgamesh and The Odyssey are two very amazing epic poems in which the main characters that are faced with unbelievable challenges. The Epic of Gilgamesh was created in the 20th 10th century BCE. in Mesopotamia and is one of the earliest known literary writings. The Odyssey was later made in 725 BCE. in Greece and was written in Homeric Greek and was sung more than read (Mastin, 2009a). The main characters in both of these epic poems the hero must embark on dangerous quests and adventures to reach their goal. Their adventures and tales tell describe what a true hero is and what characteristics every man should have. In both these epic poems both Gilgamesh and Odysseus are required to deal with dangerous tasks that must be dealt with in order to proceed. In the story with Gilgamesh he must confront and kill Humbaba, a demon-ogre who is a guardian in the sacred Cedar Forest. While Odysseus lands in the land of the Cyclopes and is trapped in a cave and he must come up with a plan to escape with his men. Gilgamesh went to kill the guardian to make a name for himself even when he was begged not to by his friends and even mother. Odysseus on the other hand was trying to save his men from being eating from a giant cyclops, devised a plan to blind the beast and escape with his remaining men. Both men have great strengths and weaknesses such as raw strength and courage while Gilgamesh has his beauty he also is hated by his people since he would sleep with their wives. Odysseus has his cleverness and eloquence that would help him in tricky situations but he was also a good liar which he used in many situa tions. In these epic poems, the main characters had someone with them during their adventures and journeys. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh had Enkidu, a wild-man who was created by the Aruru, the goddess of creation. Enkidu was more of a wild beast than man but Gilgamesh sent a prostitute to spend time with him to turn him into a man and to stop living with the animals. They dont become true friends until they fight one another which helps Gilgamesh change for the better. Enkidu disliked the way Gilgamesh would treat women and after a wedding party when he tried to sleep with the new bride Enkidu would stop him. They would fight but Enkidu would lose the battle and instead of taking his life Gilgamesh would spare it and learn from this experience his faults, through this he would become a better man (Mastin, 2009b). In the Odyssey, Odysseus would have his shipmates as his friends who accompanied him on his journey. These men would go on with Odysseus from adventure to adventure during some there would always be trouble and he would have to save them over and over but they would also die off. They would slowly die off from dangerous adventures or even be turned in to pigs from a witch. Needless to say, by the time Odysseus would finally reach his home he would be the last to survive from all his crew. They also had some difference between both of them especially when it came to their journey. Gilgamesh adventure with the Humbaba was one that could have been avoided and should have. This adventure was solely Gilgamesh decision to go and kill the beast with no other reason but to have his name live on in history. Even his friend Enkidu tries to stop him and change his mind since its no place for mortals. This is done for fame and also to show the people that the gods who forbid it could be defied by a mortal. While Odysseus goes on his adventure by chance when he is trying to get home. Many things even Gods play a role in his adventures who try and stop him on his w ay and forcing him to endure another adventure only trying to survive to see his family again. The Mesopotamians believed in many Gods and was very important to them in their daily life. Even with Gilgamesh he asked guidance and help from the Gods to seek approval for what he wants to do. The Gods would make beast that would be good or evil but would be worshiped by the people. An example of this would be Humbaba the guardian of the cedar forest that Gilgamesh kills in the end which would punish him in the end. With Odysseus in the Greek culture they to believe in many Gods but didnt rely on them as much to interfere. He would be tested and pushed further and further away from his family but he would overcome the obstacles placed in front of him showing his strengths, intelligence and even his weaknesses. This was in most Greek culture which everyman would aspire to do. It never told of him asking for help from the Gods but showed how man would overcome and prevail. Even in today culture and ideals this is seen throughout the world. There are so many people in the world who rely on a higher power to ask for advice and think they are being tested in their own adventures. There are many heroes and role models people have who they look up to and try and want to try and have the same type of traits as they do. Strength and intelligence are not the only thing that makes a good man or women its all the other qualities that will help them overcome adversity and continue on their journey. References Atsma, A. J. (2000-2017). HOMER, ODYSSEY 9. Retrieved from Homer. (1997). The Odyssey (R. Fagles, Trans.). Wilder Publications. Karas, M., Megas, C. (1997-2017). Odysseus. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from The Epic of Gilgamesh (M. G. Kovacs, Trans.). (1998). Retrieved from Learning about Ancient Mesopotamian Religion and Culture. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2017, from Mark, J. J. (2009, September 2). Mesopotamia. Retrieved from Mastin, L. (2009a). The Odyssey Homer Ancient Greece Classical Literature. Retrieved from Mastin, L. (2009b). Epic of Gilgamesh Other Ancient Civilizations Classical Literature. Retrieved from Sandars, N. K. (Trans.). (1972). The Epic of Gilgamesh. NY: Penguin Books.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Cultural Conflict Essay

Culture is a lot more than what language a person is speaking how they are dressing and what kind of food they are eating. Cultural groups share nationality, race and similar ethnicity. However, culture could also include religion, sexual orientation, gender and even generation. Although culture is not visible, it plays a major role in how we handle conflict. It is often the starting place of our thinking and our behaviors. Cultures are sort of implanted in every conflict because conflicts arise in every human relationship. When it comes to handling conflict, we tend to handle it by using lifelong messages that we have received due to our culture. Cultural messages are unique in different cultures. The message one culture sends could be perceived and interpreted to totally something else by a different culture receiver. Living in a world with so many different cultures, we almost have to be cultural fluent. Cultural fluency means being familiar with different cultures, how they work and how they intertwine with our relationships when it comes to conflict. One of the major dimensions of cultural fluency is communication, which refers to different starting points about how to relate to and with different culture groups. Two of the different variations of communication are high and low context. Besides being used in individual communication, high and low context is also used to understand different cultural groups. In high context communication, large part of the message conveyed lies in the physical context, including tone of voice, facial expression, and gestures. In low context communication, the spoken word carries most of the meaning, whatever is trying to be conveyed is simply said directly. Coming from a big Armenian family, culture and conflict are very high context between me and the rest of my family members. Every little tone of voice, facial expression, and gesture has a major meaning behind it, to decode the true meaning you would have to be part of the family. Growing up, my parents were not strict at all with me and my brother. However, we knew how to decode them without them even saying anything. If I brought a new friend to my house, just by the way my mother would look at me I would know that this person is not coming to my house anymore. Even in conversations, a two word response from my parents meant a lot. Going to a restaurant owned by another Armenian person with Armenian employees is also involved in high context communication. You simply know how to act, what to do, what to say and what not to say. When it comes to conflict, I have friends of different nationalities. Being in an argument with one of my fellow Armenian friends is way different than being in an argument with a friend that was born and raised here in The United States with parents that were born and raised here also. A few words back and forth with my Armenian friend would simply end the argument with both of us understanding who was right and who was wrong. However, when involved in an argument with one of my friends who comes from a low context background, I almost have to argue with him in a low context matter by explaining every little detail. A few different gestures and facial expressions do not mean anything to him and it does get frustrating at times. A person’s cultural background affects communication in a major way when a high and low context communication is involved. How things are perceived and interpreted depend on the person’s cultural background. In low context cultures individuals rely more in spoken words. In high context cultures there are more contexts involved, like tone of voice, facial expression, and gestures. Growing up in a high context family and having different perception of things embedded in me, I have learned how to deal with conflict in a high context matter. Also, having friends who come from a low context culture, I have dealt with communicating differently and also have experienced situations differently than them. In order to better communicate with the people involved in your life you have to understand how they perceive and interpret what you are communicating with them.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Scholastic’s Marketing Strategy

Evolving a successful marketing strategy depends on an effective situation analysis, which involves identifying the customer needs, changes in the operating environment, new opportunities, and the capability of the company to meet these changes. Scholastic corporation is one of the leading publishers catering to the children's segment. With decades of experience in children's publishing and links with most schools libraries across the nation the company has a great outreach to the student segment compared to other competing publishers. However, some changes in the external factors have clearly affected the company's business in a negative way. First and foremost of them is the government's cutting short of school budget allocation, which implied that libraries could no longer afford to spend funds for buying new books. This was a drastic blow for Scholastic as the company depended on its extensive tie-ups with school libraries for its regular business. Next, is the surge of the competitors such as Simon and Schuster and Houghton Mifflin who are capitalizing on Scholastic's inept handling of the changing market situation. These competitors, by their more effective marketing strategies have already started to increase their share in the market, which was previously largely dominated by Scholastic. Scholastic has failed to forge relationships with teachers and management in reaching out to the students. This lack of appreciation of the value of proper human relations is another big hurdle in its business interests, especially when the market seems to be lagging. To be successful under these changing circumstances Scholastic has to revamp their marketing strategy. Focus should be placed on increasing the literacy interests of the younger generation. Under the strange circumstances that the government is crying about improving the literacy skills of students while at the same time cutting the funding for the schools, Scholastic could put to good use its extensive connections with schools by actively participating and organizing book fairs and book clubs. An important fact is that book fairs promote book sales and stimulates reading in children, which in turn implies more books sales. Scholastic should sponsor more book clubs, which would help kindle the reading habits of the school going children. Thus by co-ordinating and working actively with school management Scholastic could promote the reading interests among children which seems to be threatened by the funding cuts by the government. Given that more than 100,000 school book fairs are organized every year around the country, it is plainly obvious that Scholastic should actively participate with the schools in organizing and conducting these book fairs and book club's. These programs, though, may involve expenditure on the part of the company, constitute a good strategy which promises a lot in the long-term. Thus, by organizing these book fairs and book clubs with minimum or even as a non-profit initiative, Scholastic corporation could actively contribute to promoting literacy interests of children upon which rests the success of its future business.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuels Essay - 801 Words

Environmental Effects of Fossil Fuels Besides food, fossil fuels are our most important resource. According to, there are three major resources. These resources are coal, oil and natural gas. The environmental impact of fossil fuel usage affects us greatly as individuals and as a global community. Coal causes much damage to our environment. Coal extraction is a serious cause of water pollution. Coal is used primarily to produce electricity. Coal releases nitrous oxide when it is burned. Nitrous oxide unfortunately stays in the atmosphere for a long time. Because this is kept in the atmosphere for such a long time it is very difficult to see or predict the harmful effects of this gas. Nearly fifty percent of the†¦show more content†¦According to, ships, barges, trucks, railways, pipelines and super tankers are used to transport oil globally. Often, oil is found far from its needed location. Unfortunately, transportation of oil can often result in great damage to the environment. Seepage from pipelines often destroys much wildlife and animal life. Oil spills are common. One of the most famous oil spills was when the Exxon Valdez super tanker ran aground an Alaskan reef in March of 1989. The spill was highly publicized and many were extremely concerned a bout the long term environmental impact. According to the Exxon Valdez Trustee Council, about eleven million gallons of oil damaged up to 1,300 miles of coastline. Many preventative measures have been taken to avoid such problems in the future. Legislation was passed requiring that all tankers passing through the sound where the spill occurred be double-hulled. Also, the amount of available containment boom in the sound has been greatly increased. The Exxon Valdez Company has been bought out by another company. It is determined that complacency is the greatest cause of oil spills. 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